List Of Gemstones

Lapis lazuli, or lapis for short, is a deep blue metamorphic rock used as a semi-precious stone that has been prized since antiquity for its intense color. As early as the 7th millennium BC, lapis lazuli was mined in the Sar-i Sang mines, in Shortugai, and in other mines in Badakhshan province in northeast Afghanistan.

Color: Blue
Luster: Greasy, Vitreous
Crystal system: Cubic crystal system
Chemical formula: (Na,Ca)₈Al₆Si₆O₂₄ (S,SO)₄
Hardness (Mohs hardness scale): 5 – 5.5
Did you know: The name derives from the Latin, lapis, which means stone, and from the Arabic, azul, which means blue.

Opal is a hydrated amorphous form of silica; its water content may range from 3 to 21% by weight, but is usually between 6 and 10%. Because of its amorphous character, it is classed as a mineraloid, unlike crystalline forms of silica, which are classed as minerals.

Color: Black, Pink, White, Green, Purple, Blue, Grey, Yellow, Red, Orange, Brown
Luster: Vitreous, Waxy, Pearly
Birthstone zodiac sign: Libra
Associated month: October
Crystal system: Amorphous solid
Chemical formula: SiO₂·nH₂O

Moonstone is a sodium potassium aluminium silicate of the feldspar group that displays a pearly and opalescent schiller. An alternative name is hecatolite.

Moonstone has been used in jewelry for millennia, including ancient civilizations. 

Color: Grey, White, Purple, Green, Pink, Blue, Orange, Yellow, Brown
Luster: Pearly
Chemical formula: KAlSi₃O₈, (Na,Ca)Al₁₋₂Si₃₋₂O₈
Hardness (Mohs hardness scale): 6 – 6.5
Mineral class: Orthoclase, Oligoclase
Transparency: Translucent, Transparent
Mohs scale hardness: 6.0

Agate is a rock consisting primarily of cryptocrystalline silica, chiefly chalcedony, alternating with microgranular quartz. It is characterized by its fineness of grain and variety of color.

Color: Black, Green, Red, Blue, Purple, White, Yellow, Grey, Brown, Orange, Pink
Luster: Vitreous
Crystal system: Hexagonal crystal system
Chemical formula: SiO₂
Hardness (Mohs hardness scale): 7
Mineral class: Chalcedony

Tourmaline is a crystalline boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium, iron, magnesium, sodium, lithium, or potassium. Tourmaline is classified as a semi-precious stone and the gemstone comes in a wide variety of colors.

Color: Green, Blue, Black, Purple, Red, Pink, Yellow, White, Grey, Brown, Orange
Luster: Vitreous
Associated month: October
Crystal system: Hexagonal crystal system
Hardness (Mohs hardness scale): 7 – 7.5
Mineral class: Tourmaline

Rose quartz has been used in love rituals and ceremonies for centuries, and remains the stone of the hopeless romantic. A member of the quartz family, this crystal is made up of silicon dioxide.

Color: Pink
Luster: Vitreous
Crystal system: Hexagonal crystal system
Chemical formula: SiO₂
Hardness (Mohs hardness scale): 7
Mineral class: Quartz

Peridot is gem-quality olivine and a silicate mineral with the formula of (Mg, Fe)₂SiO₄. As peridot is a magnesium-rich variety of olivine, the formula approaches Mg₂SiO₄.

Color: Green, Yellow
Luster: Vitreous
Birthstone zodiac sign: Leo
Associated month: August
Crystal system: Orthorhombic crystal system
Chemical formula: (Mg,Fe)₂SiO₄

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