What Is Gemstone?

A gemstone is also called a gem, Jewel, Precious stone, It is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.

However, certain rocks (Lapis lazuli and opal) and occasionally organic materials that are not minerals (Amber, Jet, and Pearl) are also used for jewelry and are therefore often considered to be gemstones as well.

Most gemstones are hard, but some soft minerals are used in jewelry because of their luster or other physical properties that have aesthetic value. Rarity is another characteristic that lends value to a gemstone.

Apart from jewelry, from earliest antiquity engraved gems and hardstone carvings, such as cups, were major luxury art forms. A gem maker is called a lapidary or gem-cutter a diamond cutter is called a diamantaire.

List Of Gemstones

Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz. The name comes from the Koine Greek ἀμέθυστος amethystos from ἀ- a-, “not” and μεθύσκω methysko / μεθύω methyo, “intoxicate”, a reference to the belief that the stone protected its owner from drunkenness.

Color: Purple
Luster: Vitreous
Birthstone zodiac sign: Aquarius
Associated month: February
Crystal system: Hexagonal crystal system
Chemical formula: SiO₂

Turquoise is an opaque, blue-to-green mineral that is a hydrated phosphate of copper and aluminium, with the chemical formula CuAl₆(PO₄)₄(OH)₈·4H₂O. It is rare and valuable in finer grades and has been prized as a gemstone and ornamental stone for thousands of years owing to its unique hue.

Color: Green, Blue
Luster: Waxy
Birthstone zodiac sign: Sagittarius
Associated month: December
Crystal system: Triclinic crystal system
Chemical formula: CuAl₆(PO₄)₄(OH)₈ • 4H₂O

A pearl is a hard glistening object produced within the soft tissue of a living shelled mollusk or another animal, such as a conulariid. Just like the shell of a mollusk, a pearl is composed of calcium carbonate in minute crystalline form, which has been deposited in concentric layers.

Color: Grey, Purple, Black, White, Brown, Pink, Blue, Yellow, Green, Orange
Luster: Pearly
Associated month: June
Crystal system: Amorphous solid
Hardness (Mohs hardness scale): 2.5 – 4.5
Mineral class: Aragonite, Conchiolin

Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, consisting of aluminium oxide (α-Al2O3) with trace amounts of elements such as iron, titanium, chromium, copper, or magnesium. It is typically blue, but natural “fancy” sapphires also occur in yellow, purple, orange, and green colors; “parti sapphires” show two or more colors.

Color: Blue, Yellow, Black, Purple, Green, White, Grey, Pink, Orange, Brown
Luster: Vitreous, Adamantine
Birthstone zodiac sign: Virgo
Associated month: September
Crystal system: Hexagonal crystal system
Chemical formula: Al₂O₃

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